Wednesday, January 22, 2020
Portents of the Monotheocracy in The Handmaid's TaleÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã American society has had certain cultural and political forces which have proliferated over the past few decades-described as the return to traditional Christian values. Television commercials promoting family values followed by endorsements from specific denominations are on the rise. As the public has become more aware of a shift in the cultural and political climate through the mass media, Margaret Atwood, in writing The Handmaid's Tale, could have been similarly affected by this growing awareness of the public consciousness. This may have led Atwood to write of a bleak future for the country where a new regime is established and one religion becomes so powerful as to take over the nation by a military coup, subjugating women into archaic stereotypical female roles. Ã Ã Ã Ã Two of these forces, as reflected in the novel, are misogyny among Christian men and the rising political power of the Religious Right. Both are insidious because the real agendas are often couched in the authority of the Bible, and both serve to oppress women and their rights. Christian misogyny, like the brainwashing at the Red Center and ceremonial scripture readings preceding sexual intercourse in The Handmaid's Tale, keeps its foothold on the necks of women by distorting the meaning of Biblical scripture. In the case of the Religious Right, its tenets would abridge not only some of women's rights, such as the availability of abortion, but would also infringe on religious freedom for all Americans. In its forays into the political system, more recently through its Christian Coalition, the Religious Right, like Christian misogynists, interprets scripture to support its movement to meet... ...at Robertson's Agenda for America: a Marriage of Religion and Politics." USA Today. July 1996. 30. Works Cited Atwood, Margaret. The Handmaid's Tale. New York: Fawcett Crest, 1985. Boston, Robert. Why the Religious Right is Wrong: About Separation of Church and State. Buffalo, New York: Prometheus Books, 1993. Doerr, Edd. "Pat Robertson's Agenda for America: a Marriage of Religion and Politics." USA Today. July, 1996. 30 Gushee, Steve. "TV Series Chronicles Rise of Religious Right." The Palm Beach Post. September 27, 1996. 1F. Rinck, Margaret. Christian Men Who Hate Women. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Pyranee Books, 1990. Trotter, F. Thomas. "Bible Frequently Quoted Carelessly for Political Points." The Nashville Banner. September 28, 1995. A7. Wallsten, Peter. "Church Meets State." St. Petersburg Times. February 16, 1997. 1D. Ã
Tuesday, January 14, 2020
WOMEN AS COMMODITY Women As Commodity Since ancient times, There people who are being sold just like a mere things sold in a market to be slaves, pimp, and it's quiet alarming that even naive child is a victim of this kind of discursive life. Women have been also analyzed to be part of those bundles of things paraded, bidded for, sold, and traded off despite the fact that women are making huge contributions for the development of their countries in different aspects today, still women are being tricked as commodity.In Shakespeare's Much Ado About Nothing, not only focused on the love story of Claudio and Hero; the volatile relationship of Beatrice and Benedik but it also goes much deeper in exploring the tensions between the sexes in a society where female chastity is equated with virtue, and that virtues serve as the measurement of a woman's worth. In women in the story interprets Shakespeare's viewpoint about women state before. Ã¢â¬Å"That women were treated as commodities on the early modern marriage exchange has, of course, been well established.Numerous social historians of the early modern period have documented the value attached to daughters as a means by which to advance family name and social position. Although marriage formations differed widely according to social ranking, as B. J. Sokol and Mary Sokol note in Shakespeare, Law, and Marriage, Ã¢â¬Å"the convention among the gentry and aristocracy was for marriages to be arranged by families with a view to securing advantages or alliances, conforming to a patriarchal model. Ã¢â¬ Numerous early modern conduct manuals and sermons, in fact, warn that a womanÃ¢â¬â¢s worth was linked to her chastity, a worth which could be lost or diminished due to real or, in the case of ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢ Hero, perceived sexual indiscretion. Commercial Surrogacy and the redefinition of Motherhood The childbearing days are no longer a required element in the reproductive period for some. Commercial surrogacy has ope ned the doors for many who canÃ¢â¬â¢t bear children of their own. Surrogate motherhood has increased notoriety as means for obtaining children.A commercial surrogate mother is paid to produce a child for someone else and then has to give up all parental rights and love for the child, she then, has to allow others to raise the child as if their own. This behavior has raised many concerns about the suitable scope of the market in commercial surrogacy. Some totally object to commercial surrogacy because the children and womenÃ¢â¬â¢s reproductive ability are treated as a commodity like children as buyer durables and women as baby factories. Since the 1970s, there has been rapid and wide ranging development in the field of new reproductive technologies (NRT).With donor insemination (DI) and in vitro fertilization (IVF), previously infertile couples have been given new hope and the chance to have children. A more recent addition to these new methods of reproduction has been the combin ation of DI and IVF with surrogate mother arrangements. This technique has subtly changed the realm of reproduction, for with the addition of a third party (the surrogate) to the reproductive environment, the nature of motherhood, fatherhood, and the allocation of parental rights and duties has come into question.Before the advent of NRTs, there were essentially two forms of motherhood recognized in Western society, the biological and the social mother. Except for adoption, fostering, or step parenting, the biological mother was assumed to also be the social mother. This is not surprising, as motherhood has never been ambiguous; one might not know who oneÃ¢â¬â¢s father was, but oneÃ¢â¬â¢s motherÃ¢â¬â¢s identity was rarely in question.However, before women were granted legal personhood (1929 in Canada), a childÃ¢â¬â¢s legal guardian or parent was the father (based on property rights arguments); historically, illegitimate children were not considered to have a legal parent, ei ther mother or father. Surrogate Mothers Assisted reproduction has contributed to the fragmentation of motherhood. Historically, the social and biological aspects of motherhood resided in one person. Maternity is now divisible into genetic, gestational, and social otherhood, and these roles can be spread among a number of women. This division is most apparent in the case of surrogate mothers, where at least three (and possibly as many as five) women can attempt to claim parental rights over a child. Ã¢â¬Å"If Mrs. A is infertile and Mrs. B agrees to provide ova to be fertilized in vitro with semen from Mr. A, and embryos are transferred to Mrs. C, who agrees to carry the baby to term and hand it over to Mrs. A and her husband after birth, the situation becomes extremely complex and the basic tenets of family law uncertain. This situation creates the potential for enormous conflict over who should be considered the Ã¢â¬ËmotherÃ¢â¬â¢ and has the concomitant parental rights and res ponsibilities for the child. For example, in the Baby M case, there was a conflict between two conceptions of Ã¢â¬ËmotherhoodÃ¢â¬â¢, the legal (commissioning mother) and the biological (surrogate mother). Surrogacy breaks down and devolves the role of mother, separating the social and nurturing part of motherhood from the genetic contribution and the birthing process. Commercialization and ExploitationWhile surrogacy in general raises a host of social and ethical problems, I believe that commercial surrogacy in particular can crystallize the difficulties that many people have with surrogacy, and help us get to the core of how surrogacy affects our understanding of motherhood. Commercialization, and its use of market rhetoric, treats surrogacy as a service arrangement between a number of individuals, leading to the creation of a product and the transfer of rights to that product. In the law in the U. S. , this is represented in the form of contracts signed by the commissioning co uple and the surrogate mother.In exchange for between $10,000 and $15,000, the surrogate mother (and usually her partner) agree to abstain from intercourse for a number of months, submit to regular and extensive medical exams, and agree to transfer parental rights to the couple once the child is born. Women As Commodity Moral Issues A Korean movie, Surrogate Mothers, told of a young poor girl chosen by the members of the nobility to be the bank for the sperm of the noble son who could not impregnate his barren wife. Her mother was also a surrogate mother before.After delivering the baby, she developed that material attachment to the child. However, she was not allowed to experience cuddling that baby as she had to be banished right away from the palace to keep the deal a secret from the public. She was paid with each and an acre of land for her service. She commits suicide for she can't accept her situation. In India,many women are being burned by their mothers-in-law and husbands f or not being able to pay the dowry completely. The dowry is the amount of money paid to the groom's parents for allowing him to marry the girl.The costs of marrying off daughters have become so expensive in India today reaching as high as 500,000 rupees. Thus amniocentesis or sex determination of t he child in the womb is being sought by couples to know if it is female or male. Many female fetuses have been killed because of this method as couples whom prefer sons. One Indian said: Ã¢â¬Å"It is better to spend 500 rupees (for amniocentesis) now than to spend 500,000 rupees later for a daughter's marriage dowry. Ã¢â¬ Japenese women feminists have decried thir countrymen who leave their wives walking ten feet behind him, thereby also treating them like commodities.Here in the Philippines, we have a history of various types of commodizing women too. Some landlords require their tenants to make their daughters or wives work in their mansions to render domestic services, maybe sometim es sexual services too, in cases when the tenant fathers are sunk in debt to them and cannot pay back. Wilhelmina Orozco learned on a research how some prostitutes in Olongapo suffer double exploitation when they cannot refuse their manager's demanding sexual favors for them, lest they lose their chances of working in his nightclub.Even some orphanages engage in commodizing women. Their administrators trick the parents of rich pregnant women, ashamed of the stigma attached to unwed mothers, or those poor women into donating their babies to them which they then sell off to rich donors abroad. The term donation instead of payment for the baby becomes a smokescreen to cover up the commerce. Conclusion The concept of surrogate motherhood is becoming very accepted way of infertile couples to have a child of their own. Although it is an act of love, it also involves financial aid.Surrogate mothers are obviously paid for bearing a child inside their wombs. A couple who wants to hire a serv ice of a surrogate mother must also consider the kind of personality of the surrogate mother. We all know that the genes have larger effect on the babyÃ¢â¬â¢s personality someday. Women are now expected to function merely as reproductive vehicles, birth mothers with no identity apart from being a suitcase to carry the child, how far can they be pushed into invisibility? How far can we ignore their moral status? It is not the intention of this report to suggest that surrogacy is wrong or unethical.There are serious problems involved, and these are partly moral, legal and partly ethical. Any attempt to legalize surrogacy, commercial or otherwise, must take into account the above implications. A failure to consider the ethical implications of surrogate motherhood, commercial or otherwise, are to show a lack of concern for another being (a surrogate mother). HUMAN TRAFFICKING Human Trafficking Human trafficking is one of the fastest growing criminal activities in the world, a phenomen on that has been said to be driven by the same forces that drive the globalization of markets.The breadth of the problem is immense and the statistics that outline the prevalence of trafficking in the world today give significant cause for concern. The scope of this global problem is exponentially increasing, and this has been recognized to be in part due to the worldwide increase in poverty that has been caused by the global financial crisis. Slowly and painfully a picture is emerging of a global crime that shames us all. Billions of dollars are being made at the expense of millions of victims of human trafficking. Boys and girls who should be at school are coerced into becoming soldiers, doing hard labor or sold for sex.Women and girls are being trafficked for exploitation: forced into domestic labor, prostitution or marriage. Men, trapped by debt, slave away in mines, plantations, or sweatshops. How can such a trade in human beings occur in the 21st century? Because it is a low r isk reward crime. In many countries, the necessary laws are not in place, or they are not properly enforced Ã¢â¬âtoo often traffickers are let off with a slap on the wrist, and victims are treated as criminals. Unscrupulous traffickers exploit the poverty, hope and innocence of the vulnerable.Victims become dehumanized and enslavedÃ¢â¬âforced to produce cheap goods or provide services over and over again. They live in fear, many become victims of violence. Their blood, sweat and tears are on the hands of consumers in the developed world. What Is Human Trafficking? Human Trafficking is defined in the Trafficking Protocol as Ã¢â¬Å"the recruitment, transport, transfer, harbouring or receipt of a person by such means as threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud or deception for the purpose of exploitation. Ã¢â¬ The definition on trafficking consists of three core elements: ) TheÃ actionÃ of trafficking which means the recruitment, transporta tion, transfer, harboring or receipt of persons 2) TheÃ meansÃ of trafficking which includes threat of or use of force, deception, coercion, abuse of power or position of vulnerability 3) TheÃ purposeÃ of trafficking which is always exploitation. In the words of the Trafficking Protocol, article 3 Ã¢â¬Å"exploitation shall include, at a minimum, the exploitation of the prostitution of others or other forms of sexual exploitation, forced labor or services, slavery or practices similar to slavery, servitude or the removal of organs.To ascertain whether a particular circumstance constitutes trafficking in persons, consider the definition of trafficking in the Trafficking in Persons Protocol and the constituent elements of the offense, as defined by relevant domestic legislation. How Is Human Trafficking Different From Migrant Smuggling? Ã¢â¬ ¢ Consent Ã¢â¬â migrant smuggling, while often undertaken in dangerous or degrading conditions, involves consent. Trafficking victims, on the other hand, have either never consented or if they initially consented, that consent has been rendered meaningless by the coercive, deceptive or abusive action of the traffickers. Exploitation Ã¢â¬â migrant smuggling ends with the migrants' arrival at their destination, whereas trafficking involves the ongoing exploitation of the victim. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Transnationality Ã¢â¬â smuggling is always transnational, whereas trafficking may not be. Trafficking can occur regardless of whether victims are taken to another state or moved within a state's borders. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Source of profits Ã¢â¬â in smuggling cases profits are derived from the transportation of facilitation of the illegal entry or stay of a person into another county, while in trafficking cases profits are derived from exploitation.The distinctions between smuggling and trafficking are often very subtle and sometimes they overlap. Identifying whether a case is one of human trafficking or migrant smuggling and related c rimes can be very difficult for a number of reasons: Some trafficked persons might start their journey by agreeing to be smuggled into a country illegally, but find themselves deceived, coerced or forced into an exploitative situation later in the process (by e. g. being forced to work for extraordinary low wages to pay for the transportation). Traffickers may present an Ã¢â¬Ëopportunity' that sounds more like smuggling to potential victims.They could be asked to pay a fee in common with other people who are smuggled. However, the intention of the trafficker from the outset is the exploitation of the victim. The Ã¢â¬Ëfee' was part of the fraud and deception and a way to make a bit more money. Smuggling may be the planned intention at the outset but a Ã¢â¬Ëtoo good to miss' opportunity to traffic people presents itself to the smugglers/traffickers at some point in the process. Criminals may both smuggle and traffic people, employing the same routes and methods of transporting t hem.The relationship between these two crimes is often oversimplified and misunderstood; both are allowed to prosper and opportunities to combat both are missed. It is important to understand that the work of migrant smugglers often results in benefit for human traffickers. Smuggled migrants may be victimized by traffickers and have no guarantee that those who smuggle them are not in fact traffickers. In short, smuggled migrants are particularly vulnerable to being trafficked Ã¢â¬â combating trafficking in persons requires that migrant smuggling be addressed as a priority.What Is The Role Of Transnational Organized Crime Groups In Human Trafficking? Trafficking is almost always a form of organized crime and should be dealt with using criminal powers to investigate and prosecute offenders for trafficking and any other criminal activities in which they engage. Trafficked persons should also be seen as victims of crime. Support and protection of victims is a humanitarian objective a nd an important means of ensuring that victims are willing and able to assist in criminal cases. As with other forms of organized crime, trafficking has globalized.Groups formerly active in specific routes or regions have expanded the geographical scope of their activities to explore new markets. Some have merged or formed cooperative relationships, expanding their geographical reach and range of criminal activities. Trafficking victims have become another commodity in a larger realm of criminal commerce involving other commodities, such as narcotic drugs and firearms or weapons and money laundering that generates illicit revenues or seeks to reduce risks for traffickers.The relatively low risks of trafficking and substantial potential profits have, in some cases, induced criminals to become involved as an alternative to other, riskier criminal pursuits. With the adoption of the Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children, supplemen ting the UN Convention against Transnational Organized Crime in November 2000, countries have begun to develop the necessary criminal offences and enforcement powers to investigate, prosecute and punish traffickers and to confiscate their profits, but expertise and resources will be needed to make the new measures fully effective.Risks are further reduced by the extent to which victims are intimidated by traffickers, both in destination countries, where they fear deportation or prosecution for offences such as prostitution or illegal immigration, and in their countries of origin, where they are often vulnerable to retaliation or re-victimization if they cooperate with criminal justice authorities. The support and protection of victims is a critical element in the fight against trafficking to increase their willingness to cooperate with authorities and as a necessary means of rehabilitation. Is There A Legal Instrument To Tackle Human Trafficking?The Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, especially Women and Children, was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly in 2000 and entered into force on 25 December 2003. The Trafficking Protocol, which supplements the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime, is the only international legal instrument addressing human trafficking as a crime and falls under the jurisdiction of the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). 1) The purposes of the Trafficking Protocol are: 2) To prevent and combat trafficking in persons 3) To protect and assist victims of trafficking, and ) To promote cooperation among States Parties in order to meet these objectives. The Trafficking Protocol advances international law by providing, for the first time, a working definition of trafficking in persons and requires ratifying States to criminalize such practices. What Are The Major Challenges Faced In The Battle Against Human Trafficking? A number of points can be made: Ã¢â¬ ¢ It is important that every effort is undertaken to establish the gravity of the problem and tackle the issue from the source to destination. What numbers are available show the problem has not abated and is not likely to.One of the challenges relates to the gathering of accurate information in order that a true picture of the phenomenon can be gauged. In this respect, some progress has been made but more needs to be done. Ã¢â¬ ¢ From UNODC's work across the criminal justice sector, we are fully aware that human trafficking is often only one activity of extensive and highly sophisticated international crime networks. Ã¢â¬ ¢ We need to ensure that, despite the many conflicting priorities faced by member states that the issue of countering human trafficking is clearly given a high priority and focus by the international community. We need to consider the type of action that can be taken to raise awareness of the problem and take steps to prevent trafficking at source (reference to UNODC public service announcements). Ã¢â¬ ¢ A major challenge is to ensure that action is taken to ratify and effectively implement the Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime and the Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Improving international cooperation and coordination, particularly in relation to developing information exchange and operational cooperation between law enforcement agencies needs to be strengthened. There is a need to take a more holistic and partnership approach to tackling the problem. In this respect, UNODC fully recognizes the importance of mobilizing the support of NGOs, IGOs, governments and the community at large. Moral Issues 1. A human trafficking victim was rescued after of the tedious and mazy years of being slaved after his mother sold him for money. He was interviewed by the UNODC Country officer of Columbia. Ã¢â¬Å"When youÃ¢â¬â¢re a kid, itÃ¢â¬â¢s easy to be deceived.Each Su nday when I walked down from the town, where my mum had a business, they would urge me to go with them, telling me that I would have a really good time, that it was better to go with them than to keep on working. On my 12th birthday, they came back for me. My mum was away at work, so I took the chance and escaped with them Ã¢â¬ ¦ Five months later I regretted being there, but there was no chance of leaving. Besides, they told my mum that I was dead, that they had already killed me Ã¢â¬ ¦ just like happened to my cousin who went with the [military], and when she tried to escape, they caught her, sent her to the war council, and executed her.I had been on the 40th front for two months when I got wounded. It was very hard. I was Ã¢â¬ ¦ in the middle of a combat situation, and I had to assemble a bomb to throw at the army, but I grabbed it with the wrong hand. The soldiers were burning me [shooting too close] and I changed the bomb from one hand to another, and it exploded and blew m y leg off Ã¢â¬ ¦ In that moment I felt blood coming out of me, very fast, and I screamed when I saw it. I was legless. I screamed again, and then a guy Ã¢â¬ ¦ grabbed me, but I fainted Ã¢â¬ ¦ We surrendered on 20 July.We were very afraid because they warned us that the only thing we couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t do was to let ourselves get caught alive, or surrender to the military, because the first thing they would do to women was raping and torturing us, penetrate us with a wooden stick and then kill us Ã¢â¬ ¦ Now my dream is that they help me to get back my leg, so I can walk again. After that IÃ¢â¬â¢d like to go to high school and then to the nursery school Ã¢â¬ ¦ IÃ¢â¬â¢d like that. Ã¢â¬ Ximena, trafficking victim 2. Luana and Marcela are trafficking victims rescued by Brazilian NGO from a discursive life , they experienced being trapped by criminals and forced to prostitutions..Luana: Ã¢â¬Å"A friend of mine told me that a Spanish group was hiring Brazilian girls to work as dan cers on the island of Lanzarote. My friend Marcela and I thought it was a good opportunity to earn money. We didn? t want to continue working as maids. For a short while we only danced. But later they told us there had been too many expenses. And we would have to make some extra money. Ã¢â¬ Marcela: Ã¢â¬Å"We were trapped by criminals and forced into prostitution in order to pay debts for the trip. We had up to 15 clients per night. The use of condoms was the client? s decision, not ours.The criminals kept our passports and had an armed man in front of the Ã¢â¬ËdiscoÃ¢â¬â¢ to make sure we never escaped. But a woman helped us. We went to the police and told everything. Ã¢â¬ Luana and Marcela, trafficking victims, interviewed by the Brazilian NGO Projeto Trama Maria Feranda is a victim of human trafficking in Colombia. Ã¢â¬Å"At that moment, my nightmare began. I was terrified when they showed me what I was expected to doÃ¢â¬âI felt I just couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t do it. IÃ¢â¬â¢ ve been through many things, but never something like that, so I told them that I wasnÃ¢â¬â¢tgoing to and that I was going back home.I was shocked when they told me that wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t possibleÃ¢â¬âthey said they had invested a lot of money in me, and I hadto work to pay them back, because I now belonged to the network. I thought about escaping, but I was afraid of being physically hurt or killed. I worked hard for six months, but they have no mercy on you Ã¢â¬ ¦ theyÃ¢â¬â¢re just demeaning. During this time, I was sold many times, and this happened every 10 daysÃ¢â¬âsometimes I just didnÃ¢â¬â¢t know where I was. YouÃ¢â¬â¢re like a commodity to them. Ã¢â¬ Maria Fernanda, Trafficking victim, interviewed by theUNODC Country Office in Colombia Conclusions Trafficking admits women, children and men basic freedom. Trafficking robs communities of potential productive members of society, and exposes victims to violence, injury, disease and death. Trafficking is a detriment to public health, both economically and in the potential for widespread health issues. The work of cutting off demand for human trafficking is complex and requires a range of partners working together around a shared rejection of products and services obtained by force, fraud, or coercion.While technology and social media is being leveraged in innovative ways to provide consumers with information and a way to connect with companies, for example, there remains a need to explore new methods of raising awareness about the nature and proximity of human trafficking. With greater understanding of the crime, and a clear tool or means to make a difference, consumers and businesses alike will be more likely to take steps to diminish the demand for forced labor. PROSTITUTIONS Prostitutions What is Prostitution? ProstitutionÃ is commonly defined as the custom of having sexual relations in exchange for economic gain.Although the sex is traditionally traded for money, it can also be bartered for jewelry, clothing, vehicles, housing, foodÃ¢â¬âanything that hasÃ market value. It is typically seen as an aberrant way to make a living and is illegal in many countries. The wordÃ prostitutionÃ can also refer to any act that is considered demeaning or shameful. The term prostitute is customarily used to refer to a female person who engages in sex in exchange for money as a profession. Depending on the culture, the attitude toward the job, and the socio-economic region in which the business ofÃ prostitutionÃ is conducted, other terminology is often used.These monikers often include streetwalker, sex worker, hooker, escort, sex trade worker and commercial sex worker. Male prostitutes are generally considered less prevalent in the occupation. They are typically referred to as escorts or gigolos if their clientele is female. If they specialize in providing their services to men, rent boy or hustler are terms frequently used to describe them? Similar to most occupations , a prostitute may have an employer or work as an independent contractor. Men who market and sellÃ prostitutionÃ services are usually referred to as pimps.Women with the same job description are commonly called madams. Both normally take a percentage of the prostituteÃ¢â¬â¢s income as payment for their promotional services. Prostitutes who work independently have the advantage of keeping all of their earnings. The presumed advantage of having representatives such as pimps and madams involved in the process are safety. These agents are generally expected to screen prospective clients to ensure the safety and security of their staff. Pimps, however, are frequently portrayed to be less than forthcoming with the agreed upon pay for prostitutes who work for them.In a significant number of cases, pimps have been known to physically and psychologically abuse their employees. Madams are less known for abuse, but are often accused of mishandling the funds of call girls in their employ. Depending upon the country and the culture,Ã prostitutionÃ may be considered a legal or illegal profession. In areas where it is lawful, there are commonly rules imposed by governments to ensure local prostitutes practice safe sex in their business activities to prevent the spread of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs).The workers are also generally required to have regular physical exams to ensure they are healthy and pose no threat to their customersÃ¢â¬â¢ well-being. In regions whereÃ prostitutionÃ is deemed a crime, the punishment ranges from simple fines or short stints in jail to death. Some jurisdictions recognize the business transaction of prostitutionÃ as legal, but make it difficult to lawfully practice by imposing restrictions on how and where it can be conducted. These controls commonly include the prohibition of pimping, running a brothel and publicly offeringÃ prostitutionÃ services. pic] [pic] Ã¢â¬Å"What does the Bible say about prostitution? Will God forgive a prostitute? Ã¢â¬ Prostitution is often referred to as the Ã¢â¬Å"oldest profession. Ã¢â¬ Indeed, it has always been a common way for women to make money, even in Bible times. The Bible tells us that prostitution is immoral. Proverbs 23:27-28says, Ã¢â¬Å"For a prostitute is a deep pit and a wayward wife is a narrow well. Like a bandit she lies in wait, and multiplies the unfaithful among men. Ã¢â¬ God forbids involvement with prostitutes because He knows such involvement is detrimental to both men and women. For the lips of an immoral woman drip honey, And her mouth is smoother than oil; But in the end she is bitter as wormwood, Sharp as a two-edged sword. Her feet go down to death, Her steps lay hold of hellÃ¢â¬ (Proverbs 5:3-5 NKJV). Prostitution not only destroys marriages, families, and lives, but it destroys the spirit and soul in a way that leads to physical and spiritual death. God's desire is that we stay pure and use our bodies as tools for His use and glory (Romans 6:13). First Corinthians 6:13says, Ã¢â¬Å"The body is not for sexual immorality but for the Lord, and the Lord for the body. Although prostitution is sinful, prostitutes are not beyond God's scope of forgiveness. The Bible records His use of a prostitute named Rahab to further the fulfillment of His plan. As a result of her obedience, she and her family were rewarded and blessed (Joshua 2:1;6:17-25). In the New Testament, a woman who had been known for being a sexual sinnerÃ¢â¬âbefore Jesus forgave and cleansed her from sinÃ¢â¬âfound an opportunity to serve Jesus while He was visiting in the home of a Pharisee. The woman, recognizing Christ for who He is, brought a bottle of expensive perfume to Him.In regret and repentance, the woman wept and poured perfume on His feet, wiping it with her hair. When the Pharisees criticized Jesus for accepting this act of love from the Ã¢â¬Å"immoralÃ¢â¬ woman, He admonished them and accepted the woman's worship. Because of her faith, Christ had forgiven all her sins, and she was received into His kingdom (Luke 7:36-50). When speaking to those who refused to believe the truth about Himself, Jesus Christ said, Ã¢â¬Å"I tell you the truth, the tax collectors and the prostitutes are entering the kingdom of God ahead of you.For John came to you to show you the way of righteousness, and you did not believe him, but the tax collectors and the prostitutes did. And even after you saw this, you did not repent and believe himÃ¢â¬ (Matthew 21:31-32). Just like anyone else, prostitutes have the opportunity to receive salvation and eternal life from God, to be cleansed of all their unrighteousness and be given a brand new life! All they must do is turn away from their sinful lifestyle and turn to the living God, whose grace and mercy are boundless. Therefore, if anyone is in Christ, he is a new creation; the old has gone, the new has come! Ã¢â¬ (2 Corinthians 5:17). Moral Issues There was a lot of hue and cry about the statement of US Ambassador Harry Thomas at a recent judicial conference on human trafficking that 40 percent of foreign male tourists visit the Philippine for commercial sex. At first the ambassador refused to change his statement when asked by Philippine officials to apologize for it, but on Oct. 7 he relented and said he should not have used the Ã¢â¬Å"40 percentÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬â¢ statistic without the ability to back it up.But his statement has once again focused attention on the problem of sex trafficking and the sex trade in the Philippines. The fact is that the problem exists although right now we may not have accurate, verifiable statistics. Conclusion Prostitution is always going to be a pressing issue, and politicians will always have different opinions about it. Politicians are the ones who decide how their country stands in different questions, and that might cause misunderstandings. The laws and official opinions of a country do not always agree with the popu lationÃ¢â¬â¢s point of view.An example of that is Germany. The facts and the survey do not agree, and the facts are based on politicians, while the survey is based on regular people from Germany. That gave me an answer to my question. The question was: Why do Germany and Sweden have such different views on prostitution? And the answer simply is: Germany is not more liberal than Sweden concerning prostitution. They are more liberal concerning strict laws, and that is because of their history that they do not want to experience again. That also affected the politicians and their way of handleing their inhabitants.What is right and what is wrong is something you have to decide with your own moral and opinion. How society should handÃ¢â¬â¢s prostitution is one of the issues I've been highly inconsistent on, flip-flopping between having strong opinions either way, to more ambivalent positions in the middle. A super-short summary of my process (chronologically) over the last two decad es: 1. It should be illegal because it is wrong to exploit people 2. It should be legal because the prohibition actually hurt the prostitutes 3.It should be illegal to consume, but not provide, since that would give the prostitute more power and enable persecution of the exploiters 4. It should be legal because regulation is more effective in minimizing harm, and at least consumption may be ethically defensible 5. It should be illegal because even though regulation helps some, it also increases the black market and causes more suffering as a whole, and is an expression of a structural oppression of women and homosexual men in our society. SLAVERY OF WHITE PEOPLE SLAVERY OF WHITE PEOPLEIn the history of mankind, slavery has been very common. Slavery can trace its history back in the ancient times. In the ancient times, slaves were sold to the highest bidder and they were employed without any compensation. Punishments were so savage for those slaves who went against their master's dem ands. Over the centuries, slavery has been very prominent. There was a time in history were Black Africans and Black Americans became domestic slaves at home. However, they were able to achieve their freedom against slavery. Nowadays, slavery is still commonly practiced in some countries.It is not completely abolished but it is less identifiable. It exists in many cultures. So, what is slavery? What is Slavery? Slavery is a condition in which people are forced to work and treated like the lowest form of creature. There are different types of slavery. You have the chattel slavery. This is the most traditional type of slavery in which people are treated like property. Slaves are sold and bought like goods. However, in this modern age, this type of slavery is the least common. Another type of slavery is forced labor.This type of slavery is very common in the past and even up to these days. An individual is left with no choice but to work against his will. This type of slavery used puni shments and violence against any slaves. Slavery of white People David Brion Davis writing in the New York Review of Books, Oct. 11, 1990, p. 37 states: Ã¢â¬Å"As late as the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, continuing shipments of white slaves, some of them Christians, flowed from the booming slave markets on the northern Black Sea coast into Italy, Spain, Egypt and the Mediterranean islandsÃ¢â¬ ¦From Barbados to Virginia, colonists.. , showed few scruples about reducing their less fortunate countrymen to a status little different from that of chattel slavesÃ¢â¬ ¦ The prevalence and suffering of white slaves, serfs and indentured servants in the early modern period suggests that there was nothing inevitable about limiting plantation slavery to people of African origin. Ã¢â¬ L. Ruchames in Ã¢â¬Å"The Sources of Racial Thought in Colonial America,Ã¢â¬ states that Ã¢â¬Å"the slave trade worked in both directions, with white merchandise as well as black. Ã¢â¬ (Journal of Negro History, no. 52, pp. 251-273).In 1659 the English parliament debated the practice of selling British Whites into slavery in the New World. In the debate the Whites were referred to not as Ã¢â¬Å"indentured servantsÃ¢â¬ but as Ã¢â¬Å"slavesÃ¢â¬ whose Ã¢â¬Å"enslavementÃ¢â¬ threatened the liberties of all Englishmen. (Thomas Burton, Parliamentary Diary: 1656-59, vol. 4, pp. 253-274). Foster R. Dulles in Labor in America quotes an early document describing White children in colonial servitude as Ã¢â¬Å"crying and mourning for redemption from their slavery. Ã¢â¬ Dr. Hilary McD. Beckles of the University of Hull, England, writes regarding White slave labor, Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦ ndenture contracts were alienableÃ¢â¬ ¦ the ownership of which could easily be transferred, like that of any other commodityÃ¢â¬ ¦ as with slaves, ownership changed without their participation in the dialogue concerning transfer. Ã¢â¬ Beckles refers to Ã¢â¬Å"indentured servitudeÃ¢â¬ as Ã¢â¬Å" White proto-slaveryÃ¢â¬ (The Americas, vol. 41, no. 2, p. 21). In the Calendar of State Papers, Colonial Series; America and West Indies of 1701, we read of a protest over the Ã¢â¬Å"encouragement to the spiriting away of Englishmen without their consent and selling them for slaves, which hath been a practice very frequent and known by the name of kidnapping. (Emphasis added). In the British West Indies, plantation slavery was instituted as early as 1627. In Barbados by the 1640s there were an estimated 25,000 slaves, of whom 21,700 were White. (Ã¢â¬Å"Some Observations on the Island of Barbados,Ã¢â¬ Calendar of State Papers, Colonial Series, p. 528). It is worth noting that while White slaves were worked to death in Barbados, there were Carib-bean Indians brought from Guiana to help propagate native foodstuffs who were well-treated and re-ceived as free persons by the wealthy planters.Of the fact that the wealth of Barbados was founded on the backs of White slave labor there can be no doubt. White slave laborers from Britain and Ireland were the mainstay of the sugar colony. Until the mid-1640s there were few Blacks in Barbados. George Downing wrote to John Winthrop, the co-lonial governor of Massachusetts in 1645, that planters who wanted to make a fortune in the British West Indies must procure White slave labor Ã¢â¬Å"out of EnglandÃ¢â¬ if they wanted to succeed. (Elizabeth Donnan, Documents Illustrative of the History of the Slave Trade to America, pp. 25-126). Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦ white indentured servants were employed and treated, incidentally, exactly like slavesÃ¢â¬ ¦ Ã¢â¬Å"(Morley Ayearst, The British West Indies, p. 19). Ã¢â¬Å"The many gradations of unfreedom among Whites made it difficult to draw fast lines between any idealized free White worker and a pitied or scorned servile Black workerÃ¢â¬ ¦ in labor-short seventeenth and eighteenth-century America the work of slaves and that of White servants were virtually inter-changeable in most ar eas. Ã¢â¬ (David R. Roediger, The Wages of Whiteness: Race and the Making of the American Working Class, p. 5). In the Massachusetts Court of Assistants, whose records date to 1633, we find a 1638 description of a White man, one Gyles Player, as having been Ã¢â¬Å"delivered up for a slave. Ã¢â¬ The Englishman William Eddis, after observing White slaves in America in the 1770s wrote, Ã¢â¬Å"Gener-ally speaking, they groan beneath a worse than Egyptian bondageÃ¢â¬ (Letters from America, London, 1792). Governor Sharpe of the Maryland colony compared the property interest of the planters in their White slaves, with the estate of an English farmer consisting of a Ã¢â¬Å"Multitude of Cattle. The Quock Walker case in Massachusetts in 1 783 which ruled that slavery was contrary to the state Constitution, was applied equally to Blacks and Whites in Massachusetts. Patrick F. Moran in his Historical Sketch of the Persecutions Suffered by the Catholics of Ireland, re-fers to the transp ortation of the Irish to the colonies as the Ã¢â¬Å"slave-tradeÃ¢â¬ (pp. 343-346). The disciplinary and revenue laws of early Virginia (circa 1631-1645) did not discriminate Negroes in bondage from Whites in bondage. (William Hening [editor], Statutes at Large of Virginia, vol. I, pp. 74, 198, 200, 243, 306. For records of wills in which Ã¢â¬Å"Lands, goods & chattels, cattle, moneys, ne-groes, English servants, horses, sheep and household stuffÃ¢â¬ were all sold together see the Lancaster County Records in Virginia Colonial Abstracts, Beverly Fleet, editor). Lay historian Col. A. B. Ellis, writing in the British newspaper Argosy (May 6, 1893): Ã¢â¬Å"Few, but read-ers of old colonial State papers and records, are aware that between the years 1649-1690 a lively trade was carried on between England and the plantations, as the colonies were then called, in politi-cal prisonersÃ¢â¬ ¦ here they were sold by auction to the colonists for various terms of years, sometimes for life a s slaves. Ã¢â¬ Sir George SandysÃ¢â¬â¢ 1618 plan for Virginia referred to bound Whites assigned to the treasurerÃ¢â¬â¢s of-fice to Ã¢â¬Å"belong to said office for ever. Ã¢â¬ The service of Whites bound to BerkeleyÃ¢â¬â¢s Hundred was deemed Ã¢â¬Å"perpetual. Ã¢â¬ (Lewis Cecil Gray, History of Agriculture in the Southern United States to 1860, vol. I, pp. 316, 318). Certainly the enslaved Whites themselves recognized their condition with painful clarity.As one White man, named Abram, who was accused of trying to agitate a rebellion stated to his fellows, Ã¢â¬Å"Wherefore should wee stay here and be slaves? Ã¢â¬ In a statement smuggled out of the New World and published in London, Whites in bondage did not call themselves Ã¢â¬Å"indentured servants. Ã¢â¬ In their writing they referred to themselves as Ã¢â¬Å"EnglandÃ¢â¬â¢s slavesÃ¢â¬ and EnglandÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"merchandise. Ã¢â¬ (Marcellus Rivers and Oxenbridge Foyle, EnglandÃ¢â¬â¢s Slavery, 1659).Eyewit nesses like Pere Labat who visited the West Indian slave plantations of the 17th century which were built and manned by White slaves labeled them Ã¢â¬Å"White slavesÃ¢â¬ and nothing less (Memoirs of Pere Labat, 1693-1705, p. 125). Even Blacks referred to the White forced laborers in the colonies as Ã¢â¬Å"white slaves. Ã¢â¬ (Colonial Office, Public Records Office, London, 1667, no. 170) Sot-Weed Factor, or, a Voyage to Maryland, a pamphlet circulated in 1708, articulates the plight of tens of thousands of pathetic young White girls kidnapped from England and enslaved in colonial America, lamenting that:In better Times eÃ¢â¬â¢er to this Land I was unhappily TrepanÃ¢â¬â¢d; Not then a slaveÃ¢â¬ ¦ But things are changedÃ¢â¬ ¦ KidnapÃ¢â¬â¢d and FoolÃ¢â¬â¢dÃ¢â¬ ¦ Ã¢â¬ The height of academic and media fraud is revealed in the monopolistic trademark status the official controllers of education and mass communications have successfully established between the defini-tion of the word Ã¢â¬Å"slaveÃ¢â¬ and the negro, while labeling descriptions of the historic experience of Whites in slavery a fallacy. Yet the very word Ã¢â¬Å"slave,Ã¢â¬ which the establishmentÃ¢â¬â¢s consensus school of history pretends cannot legitimately be applied to Whites, is derived from the word Slav.According to the Ox-ford English Dictionary, the word slave is another name for the White people of eastern Europe, the Slavs. (Compact Edition of the Oxford English Dictionary, p. 2,858). In other words, slave has always been a term for and a definition of a servile condition of White people. Yet we are told by the professorcrats that it is not correct to refer to Whites as slaves but only as servants, even though the very root of the word is derived from the historical fact of White slav-ery. ConclusionSlavery is not something to be proud of but it is a fact that happened to every country, kingdom and empire that has been on this earth. Each of us needs to search our hear ts and find the answer to stop racial hatred. One place to begin; realize that the black race was not the only race in the last 400 years that was in bondage. PORNOGRAPHY Pornography What is Pornography? Pornography is the Ã¢â¬Ëexplicit representation of sexual activity in print or on film to stimulate erotic rather than aesthetic or emotional feelings. Ã The following advice and help refers only to heterosexual pornography Ã¢â¬â that is men looking at women and, more rarely, women looking at men. Pornography is often distinguished fromÃ erotica, which consists of the portrayal of sexuality with high-art aspirations, focusing also on feelings and emotions, while pornography involves the depiction of acts in a sensational manner, with the entire focus on the physical act, so as to arouse quick intense reactions.A distinction is also made betweenÃ hardcoreÃ andÃ softcore pornography. Softcore pornography can generally be described as focusing on nude modeling and sugge stive, but not explicit, simulations of sexual intercourse, whereas hardcore pornography explicitly showcases penetrative intercourse. Pornography has often been subject toÃ censorshipÃ and legal restraints to publication on grounds ofÃ obscenity. Such grounds and even the definition of pornography have differed in various historical, cultural, and national contexts.With the emergence of social attitudes more tolerant of sexuality and more specific legal definitions of obscenity, an industry for theÃ productionÃ and consumptionÃ of pornography arose in the latter half of the 20th century. The introduction ofÃ home videoÃ and theÃ InternetÃ saw booms in a worldwide porn industry that generates billions of dollars annually. History Depictions of a sexual nature are older than civilization as depictions such as theÃ venus figurinesÃ andÃ rock artÃ have existed sinceÃ prehistoricÃ times. However the concept of pornography as understood today did not exist until theÃ Victorian era.For example the FrenchÃ ImpressionismÃ painting byÃ Edouard ManetÃ titled OlympiaÃ was a nude picture of a French courtesan, literally a Ã¢â¬Å"prostitute pictureÃ¢â¬ . It was controversial at the time. Nineteenth-century legislation eventually outlawed the publication, retail, and trafficking of certain writings and images regarded as pornographic and would order the destruction of shop and warehouse stock meant for sale; however, the private possession of and viewing of (some forms of) pornography was not made an offence until recent times.When large-scale excavations ofÃ PompeiiÃ were undertaken in the 1860s, much of theÃ erotic artÃ of theRomansÃ came to light, shocking the Victorians who saw themselves as the intellectual heirs of theÃ Roman Empire. They did not know what to do with the frank depictions ofÃ sexualityÃ and endeavored to hide them away from everyone but upper-class scholars. The moveable objects were locked away in theÃ Secret MuseumÃ inÃ NaplesÃ and what could not be removed was covered and cordoned off as to not corrupt the sensibilities of women, children, and the working classes.Fanny HillÃ (1748) is considered Ã¢â¬Å"the first original EnglishÃ proseÃ pornography, and the first pornography to use the form of the novel. Ã¢â¬ It is anÃ eroticnovelÃ byÃ John ClelandÃ first published inÃ EnglandÃ asÃ Memoirs of a Woman of Pleasure. It is one of the most prosecuted and banned books in history. The authors were charged with Ã¢â¬Å"corrupting the King's subjects. Ã¢â¬ The world's first law criminalizing pornography was the BritishÃ Obscene Publications Act 1857Ã enacted at the urging of theÃ Society for the Suppression of Vice.The Act, which applied to theÃ United Kingdom and Ireland, made the sale of obscene material a statutory offence, giving the courts power to seize and destroy offending material. The Act did not apply toÃ Scotland, where theÃ common lawÃ continued to apply; however, the Act did not define Ã¢â¬Å"obsceneÃ¢â¬ , leaving this for the courts to determine. Prior to this Act, the publication of obscene material was treated as aÃ law misdemeanor Ã and effectively prosecuting authors and publishers was difficult even in cases where the material was clearly intended as pornography.The Victorian attitude that pornography was for a select few can be seen in the wording of theÃ Hicklin testÃ stemming from a court case in 1868 where it asks, Ã¢â¬Å"whether the tendency of the matter charged as obscenity is to deprave and corrupt those whose minds are open to such immoral influences. Ã¢â¬ Despite the fact of their suppression, depictions of erotic imagery were common throughout history. Pornographic filmÃ production commenced almost immediately after the invention of the motion picture in 1895. Two of the earliest pioneers wereÃ Eugene PirouÃ andÃ Albert Kirchner.Kirchner directed the earl iest surviving pornographic film for Pirou under the trade name Ã¢â¬Å"LearÃ¢â¬ . The 1896 film,Ã Le Coucher de la MarieeÃ showed Louise Willy performing aÃ striptease. Pirou's film inspired a genre of risque French films showing women disrobing and other filmmakers realised profits could be made from such films. Sexually explicit films were soon characterised as obscene and rendered illegal. Those that were made were produced underground by amateurs starting in the 1920s, primarily in France and the United States. Processing the film by commercial means was risky as was their distribution.Distribution was strictly private. DenmarkÃ was the first country to legalize pornography in 1969, which led to an explosion of commercially produced pornography. It continued to be banned in other countries, and had to be smuggled in, where it was sold Ã¢â¬Å"under the counterÃ¢â¬ or (sometimes) shown in Ã¢â¬Å"members onlyÃ¢â¬ cinema clubs. A Biblical View of Pornography God crea ted men and women to be together Ã¢â¬â exclusively and happily. God created sex as a good gift in the security of a loving, committed marriage relationship. He Ã¢â¬Ësaw all that he had made, and it was very good. Sadly in the fallen world, pornography sends clear messages, generally to men, that faithful sexual attention to one woman is not necessary. There are many other women to look at: why only be satisfied with one? We can go to an art gallery and see a beautiful woman in a picture and admire her beauty. But that is not the message of pornography. Pornography seeks to stimulate sexual attraction to the image of a woman Ã¢â¬â any woman, saying, Ã¢â¬ËThis beautiful woman, whom you know nothing about, is there for you to satisfy your sexual desires Ã¢â¬â whatever they might be Ã¢â¬â at any time. Pornography uses the strong visual senses of men to promote lust, but promises the unreal, promoting false expectations of relationships and ignoring the realities of daily living for most men and women Ã¢â¬â the shopping, washing, ironing, and crying children. By ignoring the womanÃ¢â¬â¢s character and instead focusing on her body, pornography Ã¢â¬Ëexploits and dehumanises sex so that human beings are treated as things, and women, in particular as sex objectsÃ¢â¬â¢ .Of course, pornography is packaged cleverly as glamorous, but in the cold light of day the Bible warns strongly about looking at other women (Proverbs 6:25, Matthew 5:28, Colossians 3:5) and being faithful in marriage (Hebrews 13:4). There are those who would see the BibleÃ¢â¬â¢s strong warnings on sexual purity as God being a killjoy. We need to remember that it was God who created the universe: He knows how it works and that what we see and think about is important. The warnings are given for a reason: the destructiveness of pornography on children and on human relationships.CARE regularly receives telephone calls and emails from people who themselves have a problem with porn ography or are seeing it in their family. Some would say Ã¢â¬Ëpornography is harmless funÃ¢â¬â¢. How would they respond to a woman crying on the phone convinced that her husbandÃ¢â¬â¢s use of pornography had led to the breakdown of their marriage? Or to another woman who said that she felt mentally abused by her husband who used pornography and wanted her to act in the same way as the women in the magazines, DVDs and videos? Pornography can seem far from harmless fun for the men (Christian and non-Christian) who feel trapped in a cycle of addiction.If anyone is a killjoy it is not the God of the Bible, but the publishers of pornography. The Issue of Pornography With more than 300,000 websites pertaining to pornography and new sites uploaded daily, any parent can see that we have a growing problem. The Internet is the cheapest, fastest way to get pornography out into an open market that is why it is considered the electronic playground. Before the Internet pornography was found in magazines behind the store counters, on movie channels, and was found in movies. Take a look at your favorite television show and see how many times a sexual situation comes up.The Ã¢â¬Å"sexual revolutionÃ¢â¬ as some call it has taken off with the Internet. For example, try typing in www. whitehouse. com and see what pops up definitely not the White House. Students working on a history paper in school recently went to this site and found pornography instead of history. What a surprise for the students. This happens to more people than we think. If you accidentally click on a porn site several other pornographic sites also show up. In some cases these pornographic sites contain computer viruses which will attack your hard drive.At times, legislation drafted under the guise of protecting children, includes adults which infringes on freedom of speech. In addition to infringing on a legal adult's rights, it also impedes the on the economic gains related to the industry. Thus, co mmercialism and the economy are impacted as well. With the onset of new pornographic websites, most sites are beginning to charge their consumers. Not only does this lead to economic gain within the industry, but it also assists in minimizing the access of children to questionable material.Conclusion Virtually every man will struggle with pornography. Regardless of how hard we may want otherwise we are visual creatures by nature and with easy accessibility to porn itÃ¢â¬â¢s a battle that will keep men in the trenches their entire lives. And if we hope to end this cycle of addiction and sexual impurity not only must we heal ourselves it is up to us to raise the next generation of men to view sex, women, and pornography differently that what society says today. And my own son is a foremost constant reminder of that obligation.
Monday, January 6, 2020
Night before the week of the analysis: Relationship analysis of my sister Ã¢â¬â Geyonia Ã¢â¬â and me. Using the concepts: Self-concept Emotional display Perception impact Nonverbal behaviors/communication Listening styles Stage of relationship Disclosure styles Communication climates Confirming and disconfirming messages Conflict event and styles Types of resolution I will be relating my week of analysis of the relationship with my sister to the above concepts and explaining the relationship I have with Geyonia. Self-concept is the set of perceptions you have about yourself (emotional states, talents, likes, dislikes, values, roles, and etc.) and perhaps the most fundamental possession of ourselves. Self-concept is created through messages from significant others, through social groups, culture, and sex/gender; it is subjective and may vary. Perception is affected by who we are, our access to information, physiological influences, cultural differences, and social roles. Perception has four steps: selection (what we choose to ignore and pay attention to), organization (how we arrange the information we selected), interpretation (attaching meaning to information), and negotiation (trying to achieve a shared perspective). Perception checking can be useful to verify interpretations of others behaviors. Nonverbal communications are messages expresse d by nonlinguistic terms (such as sighs, laughs, throat clearing, etc.) and influenced by gender and culture. Emotional intelligence is the
Sunday, December 29, 2019
Everyone talks about the weather, so if you want to improve your ability to have casual conversations in Spanish, one way is to learn the language of weather. Talking about the weather is straightforward, although some sentence structures are used that arent used inEnglish. In English, it is very common to use it when discussing the weather, as in the sentence it is raining. In Spanish, it isnt necessary to translate the it, and you can talk in Spanish using any of the three methods below. Incidentally, the it in English weather sentences is called a dummy subject, meaning it doesnt have real meaning but it used only to make the sentence grammatically complete. As you use Spanish, you will become familiar with which methods is more common with particular types of weather. In many cases, any of the three methods can be used with little or no change in meaning. Using Weather-Specific Verbs The most direct way of talking about weather in Spanish is to uses one of the many weather verbs: Graniza en las montaÃ ±as. (Its snowing in the mountains.)NevÃ ³ toda la noche. (It snowed all night.)EstÃ ¡ lloviendo. (It is raining.)DiluviÃ ³ con duraciÃ ³n de tres dÃ as. (It poured rain for three days.)Los esquiadores quieren que nieve. (The skiers want it to snow.) Most of weather-specific verbs are defective verbs, meaning that they dont exist in all conjugated forms. In this case, they exist only in the third-person singular. In other words, at least in standard Spanish, there is no verb form meaning something like I rain or I snow. Using Hacer With Weather The first thing you may notice if youre talking about or reading about the weather is that the verb hacer, which in other contexts usually is translated as to do or to make, is frequently used. In many cases, hacer can simply be followed by a weather condition. Hace sol. (Its sunny.)En la Luna no hace viento. (There is no wind on the moon.)Hace mucho calor en Las Vegas. (It is very hot in Las Vegas.)Estaba en medio del bosque y hacÃ a mucho frÃ o. (I was in the middle of the forest and it was very cold.)Hace mal tiempo. (The weather is awful.)Hace buen tiempo. (The weather is good.) Using Haber With Weather It is also possible to use the third-person singular form of haber, such as hay in the indicative present, also known as the existential haber, to talk about weather. These could be translated literally with sentences such as there is sun or there was rain, although youll usually to better to use something more idiomatic. No hay mucho sol. (it isnt very sunny.)Hay vendaval. (It is extremely windy.)HabÃ a truenos fuertes. (It was thundering loudly.)Temo que haya lluvia. (Im afraid it will rain.) Other Grammar Related to Weather When discussing how the weather feels, you can use tener, which usually is translated as to have but in this context is used to indicate how a person feels. Tengo frÃ o. (Im cold.)Tengo calor. (It feels hot.) You are best to avoid saying something like estoy caliente or estoy frÃ o for Im hot or Im cold. These sentences can have sexual overtones, just as can the English sentences Im hot or Im frigid. Most textbooks advise against using sentences such as es frÃ o to say its cold, and some say that such a usage of the verb ser is incorrect. However, such expressions are heard in informal speech in some areas. Weather Vocabulary Once you get beyond the basics, here is a vocabulary list that should cover most situations or help you understand the forecasts youll find in news and social media: altamente: highlyaviso: advisorycalor: hotcentÃ metro: centimeterchaparrÃ ³n: downpourchubasco: squall, downpourciclÃ ³n: cyclonedespejado: cloudlessdiluviar: to pour, to flooddisperso: scatteredeste: eastfresco: coolfrÃ o: coldgranizada: hailstormgranizo: hail, sleethumedad: humidityhuracÃ ¡n: hurricaneÃ ndice ultravioleta: ultraviolet indexkilÃ ³metro: kilometerleve: lightlluvia: rainluz solar, sol: sunshinemapa: mapmayormente: mostlymetro: metermilla: milemÃ nimo: minimumnevar: to snownieve: snownorte: northnublado: cloudynubosidad: cloud cover, cloudinessoccidente: westoeste: westoriente: eastparcialmente: partlypie: footponiente: westposibilidad: possibilityprecipitaciÃ ³n: precipitationpresiÃ ³n: air pressurepronÃ ³stico: forecastpulgada: inchrelÃ ¡mpago: lightningrocÃ o: dewsatÃ ©lite: satellitesur: southtemperatura: temperaturetiempo: weather, timetronar: to thundertrueno: thundervendaval: strong wind, windstormventisca: snowstormviento: windvientos helados : wind chillvisibilidad: visibility Key Takeaways Spanish has three common ways of talking about weather: using verbs that refer to weather, using hacer followed by a weather term, and using the existential haber followed by a weather term.When translating to Spanish, the it in sentences such as it is raining is not translated directly.
Saturday, December 21, 2019
Take a Bow Loved ones come and go and must be birthed, and ultimately buried, it is the drama of this existence. Often a person finds he or she is seemingly incapable of performing some unsavory duty. But life and death have a way of making it impossible to avoid this unpleasantness and one finds the nerve or stomach to do that which must be done; accept the task as just another experience in the tapestry, and move on. Once upon a time there was no service that provided assistance in times such as these. If a friend or family member was stabbed or had his brains bashed in, wellÃ¢â¬ ¦ someone had to clean it up. Tellingly the world of William Shakespeare was such a time. In the age of manÃ¢â¬â¢s revision of his culture and sense of humanity after the dark Middle Ages there was money and fame to be earned in the gossipy tales of mankindÃ¢â¬â¢s utter lack of culture and cruel inhumanity. In truth, it has never stopped, the same plot devices in service by the playwrights of the Renaissance are still drawing blood and audiences today. It is always intriguing to hear salacious stories of someone elseÃ¢â¬â¢s wrong doing, and Shakespeare had a keen sense of what held the audienceÃ¢â¬â¢s macabre attention. Fittingly, Othello, and by relation all ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s work survives in the mind of historical praise not only because Shakespeare was eloquent but also a student of the human drama. Not unlike Chaucer before him, ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s plays point to enthralling cautionary tales that wooed women with allShow MoreRelatedWilliam Shakespeare s Brave New World925 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesthe novel, Brave New World, the author, Aldous Huxley strategically incorporates various Shakespearean allusions into his story. The most distinguished allusion throughout the entirety of the novel is to a quote from The Tempest, a play about a sorcerer and his daughter that live together on a remote island. The quote from The Tempest, in which Brave New World derives its name, Ã¢â¬Å"O, wonder!/How many goodly creatures are there here!/How beauteous mankind is! O brave new world,/That has such peopleRead MoreWilliam Shakespeare s World Masterpieces1595 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesbe arranged marriages betwe en those of equal status or class as the norm. Back then love was seen as a perfect and pure concept. Cervantes did not agree with this and challenged and mocked it in his writings. As stated by Maynard Mack in his book, World Masterpieces, Ã¢â¬Å" The actual method [Cervantes] followed in order to expose the silliness of the romances of chivalry was to show to what extraordinary consequences they would lead a man insanely infatuated in them..Ã¢â¬ . 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He has contributed to many components of life today such as; founding modern English language, contributing to literature, contributing to modern theater, and contributing many of his works to modern English. William Shakespeare has greatly impacted the course of world history. William Shakespeare was believed to be born on April 23,1564, in his hometown of Stratford-upon-AvonRead MoreWilliam Shakespeare s All The World s A Stage 1540 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesMegan Mackey Professor Raja Atallah English 1102 17 April 2017 Research Paper William Shakespeare once said, All the WorldÃ¢â¬â¢s a Stage Ã¢â¬âand now his quote can be applied to his literature within his tragedies (William Shakespeare 1). The generation of people today have a much different definition of tragedies than people did during the Shakespearean times. ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s tragedies involve a protagonist whose character is developed so that it is clear that he is a heroic figure in the setting of theRead MoreWilliam Shakespeare s Macbeth - The Natural And Supernatural World1313 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pageshas been explored even long before the time of William Shakespeare; however, the playwright whose name has remained the talk of dinner tables worldwide, did an exceptional job of weighing the plurality of the different forms of the natural world. In the Scottish play, Macbeth, Shakespeare both entertains his audience, and poses questions as to what is real and what is changeable. The play explores the themes of the natural and supernatural world, questions whether or not the presence of evil isRead MoreWilliam Shakespeare s Hamlet - A Corrupt And Chaotic World2078 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s play Hamlet, a corrupt and chaotic world is illustrated through the through the portrayal of contrasting realms, the interior and exterior. Within in the play, Shakespeare illustrates the story of a Danish prince, Hamlet, whose uncle murders the HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s father, marries his mother, and claims the throne leading to HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s journey to avenge his father all coinciding with in the city of Elsinore. Simultaneously with HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s journey Shakespeare juxtaposes a seemingly healthy exterior concealingRead MoreWilliam Shakespeare s Hometown Of The English Language And The World s Best Dramatist1266 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Although many knew him as a keen businessman in his hometown of Stratford, William Shakespeare is recognized as the greatest writer in the English language and the world s best dramatist. ( www.goodreads.com) He wrote hundreds of songs, plays, books, and poems. During his time, his plays were well under-appreciated and a lot of his work did not appear until seven years after his death. Without Shakespeare, the English language would have never expanded at the rate it did, erasing many common wordsRead MoreWilliam Shakespeare is one of the most famous English poet and play writers in the world.600 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesWilliam Shakespeare is one of the most famous English poet and play writers in the world. Shakespeare has many plays that were written and performed to create an effect on his audience by creating thoughts and discussions about the social, cultural, and economic values and perspectives that were taking place throughout his time. ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s famous play, Hamlet, was a duplication of the events occurring throughout the Elizabethan era. The main focus throughout this essay is a speech spoken by HamletRead MoreWilliam Shakespeare s Macbeth - A Man Without Ethics Is A Wild Beast Loosed Upon This World1286 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pageshighly regarded scholar, once spoke Ã¢â¬Å"A man without ethics is a wild beast loosed upon this world.Ã¢â¬ It can be speculated that what Camus was insinuating, is that in the absence of morality, one descends into corruption that impacts not just the individual, but also those who surround them. Hundred of years earlier, William Shakespeare illustrated the same concept in his renowned work, Macbeth. In this play, Shakespeare primarily uses the characters of Macbeth, Lady Macbeth, and Banquo to warn of the dangers
Friday, December 13, 2019
string(45) " be contrived to fit the need of the moment\." Adolf Hitler and The National Socialists: A Case Study in Political Constructivism ABSTRACT Adolf Hitler and his National Socialist Party gained and maintained power by adopting the philosophy of constructivism and applying it to political leadership. The Nazi leader took advantage of every situation which made his approach to morals and politics dependent on the climate of public, national, and international opinion at the time. This situational relativist approach can be considered constructivist in nature. We will write a custom essay sample on Hitler or any similar topic only for you Order Now Therefore, by selectively exploring the coups of Hitler and his henchmen the constructivist, unstructured nature of National Socialism will become apparent. By Mark Mraz Mark Mraz is an assistant professor of education at Slippery Rock University in Pennsylvania. He holds a PhD in C I Social Studies Education from The Pennsylvania State University. Mark teaches social studies methods and foundations courses at Slippery Rock. Prior to coming to the University, He taught history and social studies for 29 years at the St Marys Area School District in St. Marys, Pennsylvania. Assistant Professor of Education Slippery Rock University Secondary Education Department 208D McKay Hall Slippery Rock, PA 16057 Email:mark. mraz@sru. edu Phone: 724-738-2288 0 Electronic copy available at: http://ssrn. com/abstract=1126363 Adolf Hitler and the National Socialists: A Case Study in Political Constructivism Introduction Adolf Hitler and his national socialist movement gained and maintained power by adopting the philosophy of constructivism and applying it to political leadership. The Nazi leader took advantage of every situation which made his approach to morals and politics dependent on the climate of public, national, and international opinion at the time. An example of this contrived policy can be seen in the NaziÃ¢â¬â¢s attempt to create a religion, the Reich Church. However, the general German public adhered to their Christianity and Hitler was forced back down when faced with severe prevalent resistance, thereby allowing the people to keep their religious beliefs (Goldenhagen). Undoubtedly, this situational relativist approach can be considered Constructivist. Therefore, by exploring a selective array of the major coups of Hitler and his henchmen; the constructivist unstructured nature of National Socialism is apparent. According to Hitler, in one of his many private diatribes to his inner circle of disciples, the ultimate goal of his whole policy was quite clear. HitlerÃ¢â¬â¢s employment of Machiavellian tactics can be seen as implied constructivism. Hitler stated: Always I am concerned only that I do not take a step from which I will perhaps have to retreat, and not take a step that will harm us. I tell you that I always go to the outermost limits of risk, but never beyond. For this you need to have a nose more or less to smell out; Ã¢â¬Å"What can I still do? Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬ ¦ In a struggle against an enemy, I do not summon an enemy with force of fight. I donÃ¢â¬â¢t say: Ã¢â¬Å"Fight! Ã¢â¬ because I want to fight. Instead I say , Ã¢â¬Å"I will destroy you! And now. Wisdom, help me to maneuver you into a corner that you cannot fight back, and then you get the blow to the heart. (Rosenbaum, 382). This passage suggests that Hitler had a goal in mind but the means to the end 1 Electronic copy available at: http://ssrn. com/abstract=1126363 involved a series of constructed scenarios to back his opponents into a position of weakness by giving them no room to maneuver. This is exactly what he did when he took over Austria, the Rhineland, and Czechoslovakia. Hitler harangued, browbeat, and got a vast territory without firing a shot. This weaving and bobbing like a prize fighter on the world stage of geo-politics is dangerous for both the winner and loser. Because the relativity of the circumstances can be misconstrued as vital to the national interest.. This situational contrived metaphysics of the whole history of the National Socialist Workingmans PartyÃ¢â¬â¢s rise to power can be interpreted as Machiavellian. Machiavellianism, is by its very Ã¢â¬Å"Realpolitik-politics void of ethicsÃ¢â¬ nature is a process that is constructivist due to the solipsistic beliefs of its adherents always laboring for the welfare of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s state at the cost of others countries. This ultimately leads to means that are built to real goals by situational circumstance and contrived ethics. According to Claudia Koonz, Professor of History at Duke Univesity: Hitler was a keen judge of his constituencyÃ¢â¬â¢s desires and needs, which allowed him to fashion his state around principles of secular racism which were void of religion. Basing their notions of ethical behavior on the civic virtues of the ethnic Germanic community and hatred of outsiders, the national socialists; had an amoral compass (Koonz). This moral construction, based on underlyin g prejudices was seen by the majority of Germans as being proper and ethical, are another example of the constructivist philosophy of the Third Reich. Hitler and his disciples gave the masses what they wanted security from outsiders. Many Germans were xenophobic about Bolshevism and other alien ideologies; that if adopted would destroy the socio-political cultural fiber of Germanic Teutonic society. All 2 ideas counter to the Nazi Utopia of Aryan supremacy in all socio-cultural-geo-political spheres were perceived by the masses as a threat or a wart on the body politic which had to be removed. Thus creating a surgical mind set about the elimination of undesirable Non-German elements in society. This whole outlook of the reign was conditioned by this contrived metaphysics which made murders out of learned people who under normal circumstances would be humane. Constructivism as a Philosophy in Theory and Practice Constructivism is a philosophical perspective that contends that all truths or facts are Ã¢â¬Å"constructed. Ã¢â¬ Therefore, truth is contingent on situational, social experience and individual perception. Constructivist philosophy in education holds that pupils are not passive vessels of knowledge, but actively involved in the creation of knowledge through their experiences. The adherents to this philosophy believe that truth is made or invented, not discovered or learned (Ozmon). So if one would take this philosophy to the extreme, it would be easy to extrapolate that truth can be contrived to fit the need of the moment. You read "Hitler" in category "Papers" Indeed a tactic, employed by the national socialists, was to learn from their experiences and invent the truth to fit the circumstances. This certainly was the case during the unsuccessful beer hall putsch of November 8-9, 1923. During the NaziÃ¢â¬â¢s failed attempt to take over the government of Bavaria by force, Hitler gave several speeches to his followers acting like they had effectively made a coup and won the day. When in reality, they had lost, some were killed and Hitler and his entourage went to prison (Hitler). Out of this experience, Hitler stipulated that his goal was the same, to gain control of the government, but the means were different. The unsuccessful attempt to take over by brute force was replaced with legal constitutional 3 means to gain control. Hitler from then on used democracy to destroy the representative government in Germany. He would work the system to his advantage (Gordon). According to the British Historian, Bevin Alexander, even though Hitler was not aware of Sun Tzu, he subscribed to his axiom: Ã¢â¬Å"The way to avoid what is strong is to strike what is weak (Alexander, ix). Ã¢â¬ Between 1933 and 1940, the Fuehrer avoided the strong and attacked the weak with great triumph. Hitler and the NaziÃ¢â¬â¢s had the uncanny ability to become protean when the circumstances called for it. He also had a huge talent for spotting and taking advantage of the insecurities and vulnerabilities of his opponents. Using these abilities, which might be called Machiavellian logic or simply constructivism, Hitler gained the upper hand in every situation beginning with his elevation to chancellor in January of 1933, and ending with the capitulation of France in July of 1940. However, after the invasion of Russia in July of 1941, he abandoned his constructivist geoÃ¢â¬âpolitics in favor of all out pursuit of a policy detrimental to his own country. Because of his hatred of Bolshevism and Jews, Hitler invaded Russia. He had been allied with Stalin and had gotten enormous amounts of oil as well as other raw materials needed for war from the Russians. The invasion put an end to these supplies. The NaziÃ¢â¬â¢s gravely miscalculated the extent to which the Russians were fanatical about their land and not Communism. This Ã¢â¬Å"love of mother RussiaÃ¢â¬ led to the most tenacious fighting in human history. Hitler was on the cusp of ultimate victory when in late 1940 and 1941 he changed that policy, and began to strike at the major powers of Britain, Russia, and eventually the United States. HitlerÃ¢â¬â¢s constructivist theory of Ã¢â¬Å"kicking in the 4 oor and the whole thing will collapse,Ã¢â¬ was a grave misinterpretation from which there was no retreat and deadly consequences (Alexander). Nazi Geo-Political and Socio-Cultural Coups as case studies in Constructivist Leadership During every phase of the development of the Nazi Reich, Hitler would ally with potential enemies to get what he wa nted. When Hitler was appointed chancellor, he was the head of a coalition government that contained people he did not like from both the left and the right politically. However, in a constructivist style all his own he embraced the arrangement to get to power (Evans 2005). Once Hitler became chancellor, he derailed all efforts for any opposition to gain a majority in parliament and on that pretext argued the demise of Reichstag representation. His own party had lost the majority so he was arguing to dissolve his own government. HitlerÃ¢â¬â¢s persuasive opinions caused President Hindenburg to acquiesce to the chancellorÃ¢â¬â¢s wishes and he dissolved the legislature. New elections were scheduled for early March, but before that could take place, the Reichstag building or the German Parliament burned down (Bullock). It is believed that HitlerÃ¢â¬â¢s confederates started the fire and blamed it on Communists. Once there was a perceived threat, the NaziÃ¢â¬â¢s evoked Article 48 of the Weimar Constitution which enabled the chancellor to do away with the civic liberties of the people to protect the nation from fanatical threats from either the left or right. By doing this, the NaziÃ¢â¬â¢s gave the impression that they were the stable element in society and not reactionary radicals, which they actually were. Then as the prize fighter metaphor suggests he simply weaved, bobbed, and counterpunched his way to the Enabling Act. This act fused the office of chancellor and president together giving Hitler dictatorial control of Germany by legal means (Evans 2005). Another episode of Machiavellian constructivist philosophy would be the German-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact of 1939. Hitler hated the Soviet Union and Communism. But he hated the thoughts of a two front war more. In chameleon-like fashion Hitl er courts his most hated enemy in friendship to get what he wants, no counter-attack by the Soviet Union to save Poland. Once he consolidates his Eastern frontier by agreement with the Russians, he hits the Western Democracies (Bullock). Where constructivism really becomes apparent is when one looks at the Ã¢â¬Å"Final Solution. Ã¢â¬ The Nazi leader stated that if there were no Jews it would be necessary to invent them because the masses need a tangible, concrete enemy and not an abstraction (Fuchs). Since the war many historians have developed various historiographic theories for the policies that led to the Holocaust. Two historical schools of thought have developed: the functionalists and intentionalists. The intentionalists hypothesized that there was a plan for the genocide of the Jews since 1924 (Dawidowicz). Functionalists, also known as structuralists believe that the holocaust was the product of the structural rivalry within the Nazi government and it was functional circumstances that lead the Third Reich from deportation to destruction of the Jews (Browning). HitlerÃ¢â¬â¢s actions from 1933 to 1941 involved a policy for forced deportation and exile of Jews. This seems at odds with the planned extermination theory. If he had that plan in mind why would he allow them to leave? One would think he would keep them locked up till he could get the death camps functioning (Framer). 6 Accordingly, a clarification of lexicon may be in order. The functionalist and structuralist schools contend that: 1) Hitler was actually a weak leader who was dependent on governmental and party organizations. 2) Rivalry between four power groups: army, economy, state administration, and Nazi Party/SS lead to constructivist policy making (Browning). The opposite school of thought is the intentionalist which believes that: 1) Hitler was a strong leader and implemented his will. 2) Hitler had a long term plan primarily driven by ideology which he carried out (Marrus). Both interpretations have obvious flaws. The functionalists-structuralists paradigm overlooks the popularity of Hitler, as well as deliberate policy and put too much emphasis on the power and independence of various governmental agencies. The intentionalists ideas put too much emphasis on HitlerÃ¢â¬â¢ leadership and his development of a precise plan on paper which he ollowed from the 1920s onward. In recent years, there has been a synthesis of ideas on the Holocaust and a merging of the intentionalitists and functionalists interpretations which suggests that the policy that became the Ã¢â¬Å"Final SolutionÃ¢â¬ was both a top down and bottom up structural construct that involved no master plan (Kenshaw). Clearly the functionalists and the synthesizers are in esse nce saying that the National Socialist policies can be seen as constructivist in that they developed more as a function of the state rather than from coherent plan devised in 1924. Hans Mommsen and Martin Broszat, historians, believe that the National Socialist State was not a modern government but a feudal state with under lords vying for power against others for HitlerÃ¢â¬â¢s approval. Accordingly, they contend that Hitler was a reactionary responding to situations rather than taking the lead in formulating policy. 7 Hitler had basic knee jerk reactions to problems that arose and this lead to the development of policy in a piecemeal approach. In addition, Hitler hated paper work so he formulated an idea and let an underling run with it to see what would happen. This constructivist, open ended approach permitted him to leave the minutiae of administrative paper work to others (Framer). His leadership style of constructivism caused a monumental degree of latitude for underlings from different institutions and different paradigms to develop policy. This leeway caused the innate conflicts to emerge within competitive governmental structures which lead to confusion and overlapping authority within the political system (Goldhagen). One can make a case that Hitler and his party developed situational ethics and along with it situational politics. These politics involved ideological ends with no means in place. So the function of the state was to develop the means to give them the end they had in mind as conceived by Hitler. Therefore by combining various historiographical schools of thought, functionalism, structuralism, intentionalism it is plausible that one gets constructivism. Lastly, there are the synthesizers who contend that both interpretations are correct but have flaws. It is my contention as an historian that Hitler was in total control but used a Machiavellian form of leadership that called for bold unches on the world stage. He had an overall goal in mind but no means to reach the goal. So using Machiavellian tactics and applying a constructivist philosophy he was able to successfully get what he wanted by a piecemeal approach, while letting underlings fight out the details at lower levels. This allowed him to take all the credit when things went right and to spread all the blame when things went wrong. 8 Works C ited Alexander, B. (2001). How Hitler could have won the world war II; The fatal errors that led to nazi defeat. New York: Three Rivers Press. Browning, C. R. (2000) Nazi policy, jewish workers, and german killers. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Bullock, A. (1962) Hitler: A study in tyranny. New York: Penguin Books. Dawidowicz, L. S. (1975) The war against the jews. New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston. Dobry, M. (June 2006) Ã¢â¬Å"Hitler, charisma and structure: Reflections on historical methodology. Ã¢â¬ Totalitarian Movements and Political Religions. 157-171. Draper, R. (February 8-22, 1999) Ã¢â¬Å"Decoding the holocaust. Ã¢â¬ The New Leader, 14-15. Evans, R. J. (2003) The coming of the third reich. New York: Penguin Books. Evans R. J. (2005) The third reich in power. New York: Penguin Books. Farmer, A. (September 2007) Ã¢â¬Å"The unpredictable past, hitler and the holocaust. Ã¢â¬ History Review, p 4-9. Flew, A. (1979) A dictionary of philosophy. New York: Gremacy Books Fest. J. C. (1973) Hitler. New York; Harcourt Brace and Jovanovich. Fuchs, T. (2000) A concise biography of adolf hitler. New York :Berkley Books. Goldhagen, D. J. (1997) HitlerÃ¢â¬â¢s willing exceutioners: Ordinary germans and the holocaust. New York: Vintage Books. Gordon, H. J. (1972) Hitler and the beer hall putsch. Cambridge: Princeton University Press, 1972 Hitler. A. (1975). Mein kampf. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Kenshaw, I. (2000) The nazi dictatorship: problems and perspectives of interpretation New York:Oxford University Press Koonz, C. (2003) The nazi conscience. Cambridge: Bleknap Press of Harvard University Press. Marrus, M. R. (1987) The holocaust in history. London: University Press of England. 9 Ozmon. H. A. (2003) Philosophical foundations of education. Columbus: Prentice-Hall. Rosenbaum, R. (1998) Explaining hitler: The search for the origins of his evil. New York: Basic Books. 10 How to cite Hitler, Papers
Thursday, December 5, 2019
Panfilo de Narvaez and his fleet of five ships with six hundred men set out with the intention of conquering and governing the provinces given to him by King Charles V. The Spanish expedition, motivated by curiosity, greed, and religion quickly realized the magnitude of their situation after utter and complete disaster after the ventured inland. Soon, survival of the fittest and the basic necessities of life were at the forefront of their thoughts and actions. As the herd of Spanish expeditioners dwindled, they relied upon Indian kindness and generosity to save them from terrible and fateful deaths. The more they depend on the Indians, the more they began to recognize the importance of these intelligent and resourceful people. In identifying with the Indians in their precarious manner, they were integrated into a complex and hierarchical culture in which altered their lives forever. Throughout Cabeza de VacaÃ¢â¬â¢s narrative, Indians of many different tribes offered their assistance with food, clothes, and information. We will write a custom essay sample on Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vacas Humane Colonialism or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page The single greatest opportunity for the Spaniards came about when the Indians on the Isle of Ill Fortune Ã¢â¬Å"tried to make us into medicine menÃ¢â¬ , and eventually Ã¢â¬Å"under such pressure we had to [perform a healing]Ã¢â¬ (de Vaca 49). Cabeza de Vaca says they performed all healings Ã¢â¬Å"by making the sign of the cross over them and blowing on [the person] and reciting a Pater Noster and an Ave Maria; and then [they] prayed as best [they] could to God Our Lord to give them health and inspire them to give us good treatmentÃ¢â¬ ¦ [and] they were well and healthyÃ¢â¬ (Cabeza de Vaca 49-50). These healings would ultimately revolutionize how the Europeans conducted business and interacted with the Indians because it made them medicine men. This occupation gave them access to food and they gained respect from the Indians, but they interpreted it as a Ã¢â¬Å"test to which God had subjected them to before revealing the true purpose of their existenceÃ¢â¬ (Resendez 157). For Cabeza de Vaca, this was merely the beginning of a lifelong devotion to the Lord, Spain, and himself. As he began to question his existence, he realized that it was the will of God for Dorantes, Castillo, Estebanico, and himself to become the Ã¢â¬Å"intermediaries between God and the natives because they had a special connectionÃ¢â¬ (Resendez 162). As more healings take place and their fame grows, the medicine men become directly connected to the Indians, and as a result they are called Ã¢â¬Å"children of the sunÃ¢â¬ (Resendez 167). Since they were being treated like demi-gods, they were paraded across Mexico with bands of thousands of Indians all shouting their praise for these healers. The Indians created a means of passing off the healers through a series of succession from one group to another. Throughout this process, the healers influenced the lives of the Indians by introducing Christianity and creating a relationship that could eventually lead to a more humane colonialism. The Christians were already planning this humane colonialism for Ã¢â¬Å"the benefit of SpainÃ¢â¬â¢s imperial powerÃ¢â¬ ; Cabeza de Vaca had even considered claiming NarvaezÃ¢â¬â¢s adelantamiento in which he could apply his revolutionary idea (Resendez 193). The basic scheme would be to set up a clear means of communication between the Christians and the natives. They would work out an agreement of peace between the two. The Christians would begin to colonize the New World with the establishment of churches; in which they would convert local Indians to Catholicism. Eventually they would set up trade routes would be established between towns connecting surrounding villages. All of the products would be commercialized and put on fleets bound for Spain and then the cargo would be redistributed throughout Europe. In return, Spain would return the favor bringing European goods back and essentially Europeanizing the New World. This system would have made Spain a superpower, and the images of gold would resonate throughout the hearts and minds of every Spaniard and equal subject within their mighty empire. One can see that this was merely a fantasy because of individuals like Nuno Beltran de Guzman, who drained the country of its natural resources and people. The selfishness and greed of most 16th century conquistadores is appalling, but as long as the crown got its share of the wealth, these men were supported with the things they needed to destroy a tradition that was far greater than themselves. Cabeza de VacaÃ¢â¬â¢s attempt to become adelantamiento of Florida was an epic fail, but he managed to secure one in present day Argentina, Uruguay, and Paraguay (Resendez 208-210). He used the lessons he learned in the Americas in and attempt at a humane colonialism of these lands, but he quickly found out that his presence and ideas were not welcome in that part of the world. ResendezÃ¢â¬â¢s assessment of Cabeza de VacaÃ¢â¬â¢s commitment to a kinder, gentler conquest is correct in the fact that it Ã¢â¬Å"could have transformed the brutal processÃ¢â¬ but Europeans didnÃ¢â¬â¢t care how they Ã¢â¬Å"overtook the land and riches of AmericaÃ¢â¬ (Resendez xix-xx). The Spaniards did not want to understand the ways of these magnificent peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s culture or traditions. Religion was used by most Spaniards as an excuse or justification for their wrong doing, and they used their curiosity to further their greed. All the Spaniards cared about was money, and they exploited the Indians to get exactly what they wanted. Work Cited Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca, Castaways: The Narrative of Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca, edited by Enrique Pupo-Walker, translated by Frances M. Lopez-Morillas (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993) Resendez, Andres. A Land So Strange: The Epic Journey of Cabeza de Vaca. New York: Basic Books, 2007.